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Geonics instruments are for engineers, geophysicists, geologists, military, archaeologists, agronomists, and farmers to survey the soil’s apparent conductivity and magnetic susceptibility properties.
GeonicsRental.com offers geophysical equipment to measure soil conductivities and EM responses for metal detection. Geonics electromagnetic instruments for geophysical surveys fall in to two general categories: time domain EM (TDEM) and frequency domain EM (FDEM). Geonics EM31, EM34, and EM38 systems measure the terrain conductivity, inphase response, and magnetic susceptibility of rock, soil, fill, pore fluids, and metal using FDEM.
Geonics builds two types of TDEM systems, the EM61 and the Protem receiver. The Protem receiver needs to be paired up with one of the time domain transmitters (EM47, EM57, or EM67). The Protem is for deeper earth exploration while the EM61 is for metal detection and has a limited depth of penetration. Follow this link to rent equipment from Geophysical Equipment Rental. (The above is the same as Geonics EM-31, EM-34, EM-38, EM-47, EM-57, and EM-67).
Geonics Instrumentation Usage
Geonics electromagnetic instruments are used to detect metal and variations in subsurface conductivities. Electromagnetic surveys for metal detection are conducted to detect buried drums, unexploded ordnance (UXO,) buried underground storage tanks (UST,) buried pipes, cables, manhole covers, concrete with reinforcing material, railroad tracks, train cars, and many other metallic objects. Unlike a magnetometer survey, EM methods are not restricted to ferrous metal. Non-metal surveys often focus on measuring variations in soil conductivities.
Changes in soil conductivities are related to variations in the amount of clay, amount of sand & gravel, overburden thickness, amount of available water, degree of saturated porosity, pore fluid conductivity, amount of landfill material, degree of contamination, degree of jointing, amount of faulting, and other factors (e.g., man-made features and graves). Together, Geonics EM-31, EM-34, and EM-38 terrain conductivity meters are for geophysical surveys penetrating from the surface to approximately 200 feet.
Geonics Protem receiver paired up with a EM-47, EM-57, or EM-67 TDEM transmitter is capable of investigation depths from the near surface to 1000’s of feet. Geonics TDEM instruments are capable of greater depths of investigation than their FDEM instruments. The greater depths offered by the geophysical time domain instruments lends themselves to groundwater investigations, identifying structural geology, mapping contaminate plumes, and locating ore bodies. In general, electromagnetic geophysical investigations are better
suited for electrically conductive environments then electrical resistivity methods. Compared to EM methods in general, currently available electrical resistivity systems are often capable of producing more detailed cross-sections or psuedosections utilizing multi-electrode resistivity arrays or towed capacitance coupled resistivity arrays. Go to EarthResistivity.com to rent electrical resistivity equipment. Because ground penetrating radar transmits and receives electromagnetic signals it is sometimes grouped in the electromagnetic instruments. However, the way GPR uses electromagnetic signals is very different than the instruments discussed in the page. With the right site conditions, GPR can produce detailed images of the subsurface. Follow this link to find out more about GPR.
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